新西兰授课内容简介
发布时间: 2016-05-08 浏览次数: 64


Sem5

Wine Science

Purpose Statement

To provide an introduction to the principal chemical analyses that influence wine production, including interactions with microbiology at an elementary level, and the effects of these processes on wine production. Emphasis is also given to competency in wine chemical analysis and calculations required in wine quality control.

Content

1. The science of winemaking;

2. Fermentation and microorganisms;

3. Chemistry in winemaking;

4. Winemaking control aspects;

5. Units of measurement, winemaking calculations and significant figures;

6. Wine acids and acidity;

7. Sulfur dioxide;

8. Substances that complement the activity if sulfur dioxide;

9. Phenolic compounds;

10. Oxidation;

11. Cork and cork taint.


Wine Production (A)--Red Wine Vinification

Purpose Statement

A detailed study of principles and techniques used in table wine production particularly in relation to effects on wine composition and quality. Emphasis will be placed on the importance and relevance of ongoing quality control throughout the wine making process.

    Content

1. Grape processing and juice preparation: crushing, must cooling, draining and pressing, juice clarification and chemical adjustments.

2. Red wine production: fermentation on skins, various colour/flavour extraction techniques.


Viticultural Science (A) --Vineyard Operations and Technology

Purpose Statement

The subject is structured to blend the practical aspects of grape growing with the scientific theory underlying key vineyard operations. Most major events of a vineyard growth cycle are addressed over this two semester subject. There will be a balancedemphasis on how, as well as, why a particular viticultural strategy is employed.

    Content

1. Viticulture and wine style

2. Climate, soil / vineyard floor, irrigation and vine nutrition

3. Grapevine propagation

4. Pruning Principles and Practice

5. Viticultural machinery, the combustion engine, hydraulic power and transmission

6. Advancements in viticultural technologies



Sem6

Sensory Science

Purpose Statement

An introduction to the principles that underlie sensory assessment, particularlythose relevant to taste, smell and mouthfeel. It includes the physiology andcharacteristics of the senses, the application of various sensory testing procedures, and the application of these principles to the sensory assessment of wine, grape juice and some wine faults.Varietal flavour profiles, regional wine styles and wine faults are also covered

    Content

1.The senses: contrasts of capabilities and physiology; the roles of flavour, odour, taste, texture and appearance.

2.The senses of taste and smell: the sensations, receptors, and their characteristics and interaction; nasal and retronasal pathways; odorant-structure relationships; adaptation, hunger and ageing.

3.Texture: texture types, texture terms and perceptions.

4.Trigeminal senses: the trigeminal nerve system; sensation types; sensitization and adaptation.

5.Appearance: principles of colour vision; attributes of appearance; instrumental measurement of colour; the CIE systems, tristimulus values.

6.Sensory assessment: analytic vs. hedonic assessment; the role of training; principles of sensory response behaviour; the role of statistics; control of the sensory testing environment.

7.Sensory testing: difference tests; measurement of sensory thresholds; scaling and ranking; use of standards; time-intensity methods; descriptive analysis; flavour profiling; free-choice profiling.

8.Application of sensory principles to wine assessment: the basic tastes; taste interactions; influence of ethanol content; comparison of major wine types; bitterness and astringency; sensory thresholds; influence of wine pH and ageing.

9.Role of odour: interaction of taste and smell; influence of grape variety; introduction to regional effects.

10.Introduction to wine judging: wine show systems; judging wines.

11.A detailed study of the primary varietal flavours and their profiles of the major varietal wines.

12.An introduction to wine styles focusing on regionality, wine making influence and grape variety.

                           A detailed review of a series of common wine faults by sensory evaluation including their causes and remedies.


Winery Engineering

Purpose Statement

      To examine aspects relevant to winery planning and the establishment and expansion of facilities, such as the provision of utilities, equipment selection and winery safety.

Content

    1.  Winery safety including legislation, health and safety management, specific hazards found in wineries, and earthquake based hazards.

    2.  FoodSafety Standards and industry best practice in implementation of food safety standards.

    3.  Maintenance and theories of maintenance principles for winery equipment.

    4.  Equipment selection.  Estimating capacities and interpreting commercial literature.  Technical report writing.

    5.  Winery layout and planning.  Space requirements and equipment sizes.  Fermenting facilities and building design.

    6.  Structural engineering concepts.  Loads on structures and stabilities.  Safety factors.  Structural considerations of tanks.

    7.  Utilities in wineries including energy sources, compressed air, water and steam.

    8.  Materials handling equipment.  Belt conveyors, augers and fork lifts.

    9.  Instrumentation and control systems.  Digital logic and motor/valve control.

    10.  Winery waste disposal.  The BOD test and characteristics of winery wastes.  Waste treatment and disposal.


Wine Production ( B)--White Wine Vinification

Purpose Statement

A detailed study ofprinciples and techniques used in table wine production particularly in relation toeffects on wine composition and quality. Emphasis will be placed on theimportance and relevance of ongoing quality control throughout the winemakingprocess.

    Content

1. Fruit quality and the importance of grape variety, maturity patterns, picking criteria, grape harvest and transport.

2. Grape processing and juice preparation: crushing, must cooling, draining and pressing, juice clarification and chemical adjustments.

3. White wine production: the importance of yeast propagation, inoculation and fermentation control.

     4. Health and safety issues in working in a winery.



Viticultural Science (B)--Vineyard Trellis and Canopy Management

Purpose Statement

The subject is structured to blend the practical aspects of grapegrowing with the scientific theory underlying key vineyard operations. Most major events of a vineyard growth cycle are addressed over this two semester subject. There will be a balancedemphasis on how, as well as, why a particular viticultural strategy is employed.

    Content 

1  Canopy management

2  Yield assessment and fruit sampling

3  Harvest operations

4  Vine training systems



Sem7

Wine Sensory Assessment

Purpose Statement

A study of wine assessment at an advanced level that assumes a significant knowledge of sensory science and some sensory descriptive skill. It considers Chinese, New Zealand and international wine, and all major wine types. Attributes of wine sensory quality are explored and are examined in terms of wine type, origin, grape variety and potential market. Scoring of wine is discussed principally from the perspective of the wine show system. Student assessment skill is assessed, and the assessment includes objective tests of scoring reliability and scoring discrimination. Each student also presents orally, a sensory comparison of two wines.

Content

1. The sensory influence on wine of grape cultivar, of viticultural and winemaking factors, and of ageing and packaging, and of some faults.

2. The relationship of wine sensory characteristics to quality, and the influence of region of origin and intended market on the interpretation of quality.

    3. The influence of culture and tradition on wine production, labelling and marketing.

4. The assessment and judging of wine for style and quality, including the scoring of wine using the NZ wine show system.

    5. Techniques that can be used to objectively assess wine judge performance.Techniques used to formulate and interpret sensory tests.


Wine Chemistry

Purpose Statement

This subject will provide the student with the principles and details of the chemical and physical processes and interactions that influence and achieve wine stability.  The subject also covers the chemistry of phenolic and flavour compounds found in wine, of added and natural exogenous enzymes of microbial origin and the chemistry of distilled grape spirit.

Content

1.      Phenolic types, flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenolics, origins and biosynthesis, anthocyanin chemistry.

2.     Red wine colour behaviour in young wine and with wine aging, influence of pH, bisulfite ion, phenolic polymerisation and oxidation.   

3.      The chemistry of enzymes of used in wines; including pectinases, laccase, proteases, glucanases, and glycosidases.

              4.      Fractional distillation and flavour components in distillation.

5.    Wine flavour compounds: monoterpenes, methoxypyrazines, hexenals, alcohols,  carboxylic acids and esters. The influence of aging.



Wine Production(C)--Post Fermentation Wine Processes

Purpose Statement

A detailed study ofprinciples and techniques used in table wine production particularly in relation toeffects on wine composition and quality. Emphasis will be placed on theimportance and relevance of ongoing quality control throughout the winemakingprocess.

    Content

1. Post fermentation wine treatment: wine clarification, chemical adjustments, fining, malolactic fermentation, wood treatment, storage, stabilization and blending.

2. Wine bottling: final wine filtration, bottling techniques and wine protection during bottling.

             3.    Health and safety issues in working in a winery.


Wine Business



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